Flipped Classroom has been one of the trends emerging in the current education system. Since the traditional teacher-centered classroom setting is arguably a “one size fits all” model, various institutions have tried to come up with a new learning approach that focuses more on students’ ability to absorb and apply the lessons and concepts, outside the classroom and at their own pace, hence called as the “flipped classroom.”
Basically, the idea of a flipped classroom is all about inverting the traditional classroom setting by giving the students recorded video clips of the lessons before class and by giving them the time to discuss and apply the key concepts during the class in a form of activities, group collaborations, and the like. This model aims for a hands-on approach that skips the lecture sessions that are usually done by the instructor, and instead concentrates on activities that would make sure that students are able to reflect on the concept of the video lectures given to them before class.
What happens in a flipped classroom model is that, instructors record the brief lessons and lecture concepts (which usually range from 8 to 10 minutes) and these video materials are given to the students before the class itself, so that the class period would be allotted for the: (1) elaboration of the concepts discussed in the video materials, (2) further discussion of the lessons and ideas; and (3) seat works and group works for both individual and group-based learning. Instead of the instructor being the center and source of learning, the flipped classroom model is used as a tool to improve engagement and interaction among students as it teaches collaboration and cooperation through the form of group works and discussions in class.
In addition, the use of technology for content delivery and acquisition has led to the reframing of the role of the teacher by utilizing other forms and means of achieving learning objectives by focusing more on the application of the concepts, instead of the lecture itself. With the advent of technology, instructors have now started to think of new means to make sure that learning experience would be fruitful and enjoyable at the same time.
Most instructors use the revised version of Benjamin Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning which follows the order of: Remembering (Lowest Order Thinking); Understanding; Applying; Analyzing; Evaluating; and Creating (Highest Order Thinking). The Remembering-Understanding level are usually done before class since this involves the processes of watching the video and taking notes of the things that were discussed in the given materials. On the other hand, the Applying-Analyzing levels are the ones linked to the groupw orks and discussion proper, whereas the Evaluating-Creating levels are about the extension of learning that would help the students reflect on the topics that were previously tackled.
One of the advantages of this new teaching approach is that students can now learn at their own pace since they no longer need to digest every single concept discussed by the instructor during the usual one to two-hour lecture sessions. Since instructors discuss their specific lessons through the use of video materials, students are now able to review the points raised and discussed by either pausing, rewinding or rewatching the video clips; hence, they can now repeatedly access the lessons without much hassle. Furthermore, class discussions are now focused on groupworks and collaborations instead of the usual lectures since the flipped classroom model aims for the students to actively participate in the learning process rather than being just receivers of knowledge. Since lesser time is given for lecture sessions, students are given the chance to learn more through asking questions and discussion-proper.
However, the flipped classroom model is also subject to cons and flaws, one example is that not all students have easy access to fast and reliable internet connection, thus not everyone would be able to watch the video materials prior to class. In addition, although instructors would gain knowledge when it comes to vodcasting, this would also mean that there will be additional workload for them to summarize concepts and lessons, videotape the lecture itself, and then upload it online.
While it is of great significance to create new paradigms and models that would make the pedagogy more interesting and insightful, it is also important to understand that there exists a wide array of teaching methods and models that we could use.